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Spain: Earlier royal standards (9th-10th century)

Last modified: 2018-07-08 by ivan sache
Keywords: ramiro i | ińigo arista | fruela ii |
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Ramiro I


Ramiro I's standard - Image by Sergio Camero, 15 November 2002

Ramiro I was King of Asturias, northwestern Spain, the earliest center of Christian resistance after the Muslim conquest in the 8th century, where originated the Kingdom later known as León. Ramiro, the son of Vermudo I (788-791), succeeded Alfonso II the Chaste (791-842). In 844 a powerful Viking fleet was repulsed by Ramiro I's army, 70 drakars being burned. The Vikings met with more success in Muslim-controlled Spain. Ramiro I also won the legendary Battle of Clavijo (843), in which he allegedly defeated 60,000 Moors.

Ramiro I's flag is the oldest flag in Spain of which there is evidence. According to Calvo and Grávalos [g2c83], the flag is illustrated in the representation of the Battle of Clavijo that can be seen on tomb A of the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. It can be seen flying from the royal tent.

Jarig Bakker & Sergio Camero, 30 November 2002

Iñigo Arista


Iñigo Arista's standard - Image by Eugene Ipavec, 17 November 2009

The Gelre Armorial (folio 62r, No. 638) shows as the Royal banner of Aragón a blue banner bearing a white cross patty fitchy in base (image). This is the banner of arms of Iñigo Arista, first King of Pamplona in the 9th century.

Jan Mertens & Dominique Cureau, 5 June 2005

Fruela II


Fruela II's standard - Image by Sergio Camero, 17 December 2005

The Libro de los Testamentos (Cathedral of Oviedo) shows Fruela II's Royal flag (guión real). The flag was made of a rigid, probably metallic material.

Sergio Camero, 17 December 2005