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Last modified: 2022-01-15 by rob raeside
Keywords: china | soviet union | uighuristan | turkestan | xinjiang |
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Originally a large undefined area in central Asia, Turkestan covered an area of 1.6 million square miles from the Caspian Sea into Xinjiang. Along the Silk Road connecting China to the Mediterranean, the area has been conquered numerous times over the centuries, first by the Persians, Chinese and Mongols. In the mid-1800s, the western portion was conquered by Russia, and the area divided into Uzbek, Tadzhik and Kirgiz, and portions into Kazakh from which the modern day nations of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistanwere erected.
In 1876, Eastern Turkestan was occupied by the Manchu rulers and in 1884 annexed as Xinjiang. Today, East Turkestan is an autonomous region of China.

I was surprised that the republic of Turkestan in Russia was classified as Chinese. The republic of Turkestan was the successor state of the imperial province of Turkestan, mainly the modern Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan and part of Kazakhstan and is unrelated with China.
Jaume Ollé, 04 April 2013

You are right, of course. Turkestan have no relations with China. May be authors mean "Eastern Turkestan"? People's Republic of Eastern Turkestan was proclaimed in 1943 and in 1949 became part of China.
Victor Lomantsov, 04 April 2013

Flag of Turkestan, 1919-1921

[Flag of Turkestan, 1919-21] image located by Valery Koba, 7 November 2020

[Flag of Turkestan, 1919-21] image located by Valery Koba, 7 November 2020

On some of the badges of the members of the Central Executive Committee of the TSSR, a red flag was depicted, on the top of which the letters T.C.C.P. (TSSR) and in the free part the abbreviation ТурЦ И К (TurkTsIK). You can try to rebuild the TSSR flag using this badge ... Although we have not yet been able to find any documents on the existence of such a flag.
Andre Flicher, 11 November 2020

Flag of Turkestan, 1921-23

[Flag of Turkestan, 1921-24] image by Jaume Ollé, 27 January 1997

In the years 1921/22 to 1923/24, the Basmachi flag of Panturania was used.
Jaume Ollé, 27 January 1997