This page is part of © FOTW Flags Of The World website

Confederate Flags (U.S.) Part 2

Flags Using the Southern Cross Pattern (St. Andrews Cross)

Last modified: 2023-09-23 by rick wyatt
Keywords: united states | confederate | csa | saint george cross | southern cross | stars and bars |
Links: FOTW homepage | search | disclaimer and copyright | write us | mirrors

On this page:

See also: External sites:

Introduction: St. Andrews Cross (or Southern Cross) Pattern Flags

There were six (or more) different basic design styles of Confederate Army Military Flags. As the flex and flow of military necessity effected the organization and reorganization of Confederate forces, so did the designs of their flags. A couple of examples of this would be in the Vicksburg Defense a subgroup of flags came into being that featured white crosses instead of blue, in Missouri and Louisiana a design subgroup with a Christian Cross design became popular. Faced with this we will divide them into groups. Some of these groups will be the Stars and Bars Pattern, the St. Andrews Cross Pattern (Southern Cross with a white flag border), the Army of Tennessee Pattern (Southern Cross without a white flag border), the Van Dorn Pattern, the Hardee Pattern, and the Polk Pattern. The last three are named for the Confederate Commanders who first designed (or had designed) the basic Regimental flag design to be used by the units under their command.
Pete Loeser, 26 August 2023

Examples of St. Andrews Cross Pattern Flags
Learn more about these individual flag examples by using the link below each flag.

[Army of Northern Virginia (CSA]
[ Regiment (CSA]
[Louisiana Secession Flag (CSA]

[1st Florida flag (CSA]
[18th North Carolina Infantry (CSA)]
     Many Confederate Battle flags had two sides (with different battle honors) called the Obverse Side (front) and the Reverse (back) side as illustrated to the left.
Images by Rick Wyatt, Pete Loeser, and Rob Raeside, 26 August 2023.

The flags on this page use the St. Andrews Cross, or Southern Cross Pattern favored by the Army of North Virginia (ANV), commanded by Confederate General Robert E. Lee. The units of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia used variants of the Southern Cross Pattern on their battle flags, both in square and more rectangular shaped flags.
Pete Loeser, 26 August 2023

8th Northern Virginia Infantry 1861-1865
"Old Bloody Eighth"

[Flag of the 8th Infantry of the Army of Northern Virginia] image by T. W. Hall

The 8th Infantry Regiment, later called the "Old Bloody Eighth", was recruited in the counties of Loudoun, Prince William, and Fairfax in Virginia in May of 1861. A popular early name for the 8th was "The Berkeley Regiment" because its commanding Colonel, its second in command Lieutenant Colonel, a Major, and one Captain were all Berkeley brothers.
The 8th was involved in the campaigns of the Army of Northern Virginia from Williamsburg to Gettysburg, served in the Department of Richmond, then took part in the conflicts at Drewry's Bluff and Cold Harbor. The were at the First Manassas, Leesburg, the Seven Days' Battles, Gettysburg (where they suffered ninety percent killed, wounded, or missing). Yet they continued to fight all the way to the Appomattox Courthouse Campaign. There were only 1 surgeon and 11 privates left to surrender on April 9, 1865. The "Old Bloody Eighth" indeed.
Source: National Park Service: 8th Regiment, Virginia Infantry.
Pete Loeser, 31 August 2023

8th South Carolina Infantry 1861-1865

[Flag of the 8th Infantry of the Army of Northern Virginia] image from Pete Loeser, 26 August 2023

The South Carolina 8th Infantry Regiment was organized at Marion, South Carolina, during the spring of 1861. Many of the men were from Darlington and Marion counties. The 8th was engaged in many conflicts from the Seven Days' Battles to Gettysburg, moved to Georgia with Longstreet, and was active at Chickamauga and Knoxville. Returning to Virginia, it participated in the battles at The Wilderness, Spotsylvania, and Cold Harbor, then saw action in the Shenandoah Valley with Early. Later it was involved in the North Carolina Campaign. Of the 300 engaged at Gettysburg, thirty-three percent were disabled. On March 23, 1865, there were only 52 present for duty. The regiment was transferred to South Carolina and fought in their own homes, surrendering with the Army of Tennessee.
Sources: National Park Service: 8th Regiment, South Carolina Infantry and Research OnLine: South Carolina 8th Infantry Regiment.
Pete Loeser, 31 August 2023

4th North Carolina Infantry 1861-1865
"The Bloody Fourth"

[4th North Carolina Infantry (CSA)] image from Pete Loeser, 26 August 2023

The 4th North Carolina Infantry Regiment was raised in 1861 from central and western North Carolina, from Iredell, Rowan, Wayne, Beaufort, Wilson, and Davie counties. It was ordered north to serve in the Army of Northern Virginia. They would serve in the following engagements: Peninsular Campaign, Maryland Campaign, Battle of Fredericksburg, Battle of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg Campaign, Bristoe Campaign, Mine Run Campaign; Wilderness Campaign, Valley Campaigns of 1864, Richmond-Petersburg Campaign, and the Appomattox Campaign
The Fourth was nicknamed "The Bloody Fourth" after the high rate of casualties at the Battle of Seven Pines. There the regiment was under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Bryan Grimes, who led the charge against the Northern works, and became the only officer surviving the fight unwounded. During the battle the unit lost 89% of it's personnel. The Fourth went into battle with 520 men and 25 officers and lost 462 men and 24 officers killed and wounded. They became known as "the noble 545." This was the bloodiest charge of the war. In this battle the color guard being killed, and the battle flag saved by John Stikeleather, who proudly bore the banner until its surrender at Appomattox 1865.
Source: Wikipedia: 4th North Carolina Infantry Regiment.
Pete Loeser, 31 August 2023

6th Regiment, North Carolina Infantry

[6th Regiment, North Carolina Infantry (CSA] image from Pete Loeser, 26 August 2023

The 6th Infantry Regiment was organized in May of 1861 from the counties of Mecklenburg, Orange, Burke, Catawba, McDowell, Mitchell, Yancey, Alamance, Rowan, Wake, Caswell, and Chatham in North Carolina. They were ordered north to join the the forces of the Army of Northern Virginia. They would participate in all the major campaigns from Seven Pines to the surrender at Appomattox. The story of the 6th Regiment was one of slow and bloody attrition. The regiment reported 23 killed and 50 wounded at First Manassas, and by April of 1862 only contained 715 combat effectives (soldiers able to fight). The regiment lost 115 of theses during the Seven Days' Battles, 147 at Second Manassas and Ox Hill, 125 in the Maryland Campaign, and 25 at Fredericksburg. Of the 509 engaged at Gettysburg, thirty-six percent were disabled. At the Rappahannock River in November of 1863, it lost 5 killed, 15 wounded, with 317 missing, and there were an additional 6 killed and 29 wounded at Plymouth. By the time it surrendered 6th Regiment only had 6 officers and 175 men, of which only 72 were armed.
Source: National Park Service: 6th Regiment, South Carolina Infantry.
Pete Loeser, 31 August 2023

55th Virginia Infantry Regiment 1861-1865
included Ward's "Essex Sharp Shooters Volunteer Company" 1860

[55th Virginia Infantry (CSA)] image from Pete Loeser, 26 August 2023

The 55th Infantry Regiment, organized in September of 1861, was assigned to the Army of Northern Virginia. The regiment was made up of 12 companies from Essex, Middlesex, Lancaster, Spotsylvania, and Westmoreland counties, although never more than 11 companies served together at one time. They fought at the Seven Days' Battles, Second Battle of Bull Run, Battle of Antietam, Battle of Fredericksburg, Battle of Chancellorsville, Battle of Gettysburg, Overland Campaign, Siege of Petersburg and finally the Appomattox Campaign.
They sustained 108 casualties during the Seven Days' Battles, 32 at Second Manassas, 11 at Fredericksburg, and 110 at Chancellorsville. Of the 268 engaged at Gettysburg, twelve percent were killed, wounded, or missing. Only two officers and 21 men of the 55th were present at the surrender at Appomattox Courthouse in 1865.
Sources: National Park Service: 55th Virginia Infantry Regiment and Wikipedia: 55th Virginia Infantry Regiment.
Pete Loeser, 31 August 2023

18th North Carolina Infantry Regiment 1861-1865

[18th North Carolina Infantry Regiment (CSA)] image by Pete Loeser, 26 August 2023

Most of the members of the 18th North Carolina Infantry Regiment were from Wilmington and the counties of Robeson, New Hanover, Bladen, Columbus, and Richmond. The 18th as part of the Army of North Virginia and fought bravely at most of the major battles and campaigns of the ANV, including the Battle of Hanover Court House, the Seven Days' Battles, the Battle of Cedar Mountain, the Northern Virginia Campaign, the Battle of Antietam, the Battle of Fredericksburg, the Battle of Chancellorsville, the Battle of Gettysburg, Bristoe Campaign, Battle of the Wilderness, Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, Battle of North Anna, Battle of Cold Harbor, the Siege of Petersburg, and the Appomattox Campaign. The 18th was surrendered at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865, with many battle honors but with only 11 officers and 73 men left.
Unfortunately for them, the 18th North Carolina is remembered most as the unit whose pickets were responsible for the accidental shooting of Stonewall Jackson during the battle of Chancellorsville. To top that off, the very next day their battle flag was captured, so not a great couple days for them. Later in the war a second battle flag was captured, this time by Alexander Mitchell of the Union 105th Pennsylvania Infantry who awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions.
Sources: Wikipedia: 18th North Carolina Infantry Regiment .
Pete Loeser, 31 August 2023