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Languages and peoples of Russia

Last modified: 2013-12-07 by zoltán horváth
Keywords: language | ethnic group |
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See also:
Sources:
  • Geografiâ Rossii. Drofa: Moskva, 1997
  • The Ethnologue on-line database. Summer Institute of Linguistics
  • “A Fortress of Languages” National Geographic Magazine
Legend key:
  • OFFICIAL language in the whole Federation
  • Official language in at least one of the Federation “subjects”
  • Language recognized by Soviet/Russian authorities but not official in any Federation “subject”
  • language not recognized by Soviet/Russian authorities.
  • Language recognized solely as variant of another

  1. Indo-European
    1. Slavic
      1. East
        1. Belorusian: Recognized but not official. (Official in Belarus)
        2. RUSSIAN: Official language of the Federation.
        3. Ukrainian: Recognized but not official. (Official in Ukraine)
      2. South
        1. Eastern
          1. Bulgarian: Recognized but not official. (Official in Bulgaria)
          2. Slavonic (old church): Liturgic use only.
        2. Western
          1. serbo-croatian: Not recognized. (Official in Yugoslavia)
      3. West
        1. Czech-Slovak
          1. slovak: Not recognized. (Official in Slovakia)
        2. Lechitic
          1. Polish: Recognized but not official. (Official in Poland)
    2. Baltic
      1. East
        1. Latvian: Recognized but not official. (Official in Latvia)
        2. Lithuanian: Recognized but not official. (Official in Lithuania)
    3. Germanic
      1. West
        1. Continental
          1. High
            1. German (standard): Recognized but not official. (Official in Germany and Austria)
            2. Yiddish: Official in the Jewish Autonomous Region (and in Israel)
          2. Low
            1. Plautdietsch: Considered as variant of german (standard)
    4. Romance
      1. Eastern
        1. North
          1. Rumanian (moldavian): Recognized but not official. (Official in Romania and Moldavia)
    5. Greek
      1. Attic
        1. Greek: Recognized but not official. (Official in Greece)
    6. Indo-Iranian
      1. Iranian
        1. Eastern
          1. Northeastern
            1. Osetin: Official in North Ossetia
        2. Western
          1. Northwestern
            1. Kurdish
              1. kurmanji: Not recognized. Unofficial ethnic flag
          2. Southwestern
            1. Persian
              1. Tajiki: Recognized but not official. (Official in Tajikistan)
            2. Tati
              1. Tat (hebrew): Recognized but not official
      2. Indo-Aryan
        1. Central zone
          1. Dom
            1. domari: Not recognized.
          2. Romani
            1. Northern
              1. Romani (baltic): Considered as variant of romani (sinte)
              2. Romani (sinte): Recognized but not official
    7. Armenian
      1. Armenian: Recognized but not official. (Official in Armenia)
  2. South Caucasian
    1. Georgian
      1. Georgian: Recognized but not official. (Official in Georgia)
    2. Svan
      1. svan: Not recognized.
  3. North Caucasian
    1. Northwest
      1. Abkhaz-Abazin
        1. Abaza: Recognized but not official
        2. Abkhaz: Recognized but not official. Unofficial ethnic flag
      2. Circassian
        1. Adyghe (shapsug): Official in Adygeya
        2. Kabardian: Co-official in Kabard-Balkaria. Unofficial ethnic flag
        3. Cherkess: Co-official in Karachay-Cherkessia. Unofficial ethnic flag
    2. Northeast
      1. Dagestan
        1. Avaro-Andi-Dido
          1. Andi
            1. akhvakh: Not recognized.
            2. andi: Not recognized.
            3. bagvalal: Not recognized.
            4. botlikh: Not recognized.
            5. chamalal: Not recognized.
            6. ghodoberi: Not recognized.
            7. karata: Not recognized.
            8. tindi: Not recognized.
          2. Avar
            1. Avar: Recognized but not official
          3. Dido
            1. bezhta (kapuchi): Not recognized.
            2. dido (tsez): Not recognized.
            3. hinukh: Not recognized.
            4. hunzib: Not recognized.
            5. khvarshi: Not recognized.
        2. Lak-Dargwa
          1. Dargwa: Recognized but not official
          2. Lak: Recognized but not official
        3. Lezgian
          1. Aghul: Recognized but not official
          2. archi: Not recognized.
          3. Lezgi: Recognized but not official. Unofficial ethnic flag
          4. Rutul: Recognized but not official
          5. Tabassaran: Recognized but not official
          6. Tsakhur: Recognized but not official
      2. Vejnax
        1. Chechen-Ingush
          1. Chechen: Official in Chechenia
          2. Ingush: Official in Ingushetia
  4. Uralic
    1. Finno-Ugric
      1. Finno-Permic
        1. Finno-Cheremisic
          1. Cheremisic
            1. Mari (high): Considered as variant of mari (low)
            2. Mari (low): Official in Mariy-El
          2. Finno-Mordvinic
            1. Finno-Lappic
              1. Balto-Finnic
                1. Estonian: Recognized but not official. (Official in Estonia)
                2. Finnish: Recognized but not official. (Official in Finland)
                3. ingrian: Not recognized. Unofficial ethnic flag
                4. Karelian: Recognized but not official. Unofficial ethnic flag
                5. ludian: Not recognized. Unofficial ethnic flag
                6. olonetsian: Not recognized.
                7. veps: Not recognized. Unofficial ethnic flag
                8. votic: Not recognized. Unofficial ethnic flag
              2. Lappic
                1. Central
                  1. Saami (kildin): Considered as variant of saami (skolt)
                  2. Saami (skolt): Recognized but not official. Unofficial ethnic flag
                  3. Saami (ter): Considered as variant of saami (skolt)
            2. Mordvinic
              1. Erzya: Co-official in Mordovia
              2. Moksha: Co-official in Mordovia
        2. Permic
          1. Komi-Permyak: Official in Parma
          2. Komi-Zyrian: Official in Komia
          3. Udmurt: Official in Udmurtia
      2. Ugric
        1. Ob Ugric
          1. Khanty: Co-official in Yugra
          2. Mansi: Co-official in Yugra
    2. Samoyedic
      1. Northern Samoyedic
        1. Enets: Recognized but not official
        2. Nenets: Co-official in Nenetsia, Taymyr and Yamal
        3. Nganasan: Recognized but not official
      2. Southern Samoyedic
        1. kamas: Not recognized.
        2. mator: Not recognized.
        3. Selkup: Recognized but not official
  5. Yukaghir
    1. Yukaghir (northern): Recognized but not official
    2. Yukaghir (southern): Considered as variant of yukaghir (northern)
    3. Chuvants: Recognized but not official
  6. Altaic
    1. Turkic
      1. Bolgar
        1. Chuvash: Official in Chuvashia
      2. Eastern
        1. Uzbek (northern): Recognized but not official. (Official in Uzbekistan)
      3. Northern
        1. Altai (northern): Official in Altay Republic
        2. Altai (southern): Considered as variant of altai (northern)
        3. Teleut: Recognized but not official
        4. Dolgan: Co-official in Taymyr
        5. karagas: Not recognized.
        6. Khakas: Official in Khakassia
        7. Shor: Recognized but not official
        8. Tuvin: Official in Tuva
        9. Tofalar: Recognized but not official
        10. Yakut: Official in Yakutia
      4. Southern
        1. Azerbaijani
          1. Azeri (north): Recognized but not official. (Official in Azerbaijan)
        2. Turkish
          1. Gagauz: Recognized but not official. Unofficial ethnic flag
        3. Turkmenian
          1. Turkmen: Recognized but not official. (Official in Turkmenistan)
      5. Western
        1. Aralo-Caspian
          1. Kazakh: Recognized but not official. (Official in Kazakhstan)
          2. Kirghiz: Recognized but not official. (Official in Kyrgyzstan)
          3. Nogai: Recognized but not official. Unofficial ethnic flag
        2. Ponto-Caspian
          1. Karachay: Co-official in Karachay-Cherkessia. Unofficial ethnic flag
          2. Balkar: Co-official in Kabard-Balkaria. Unofficial ethnic flag
          3. Kumyk: Recognized but not official. Unofficial ethnic flag
        3. Uralian
          1. Bashkir: Official in Bashkiria
          2. chulym: Not recognized.
          3. Tatar: Official in Tataria
          4. Tatar (siberian): Recognized but not official
    2. Mongolian
      1. Eastern
        1. Oirat-Khalkha
          1. Khalkha-Buriat
            1. Buriat
              1. Buriat (russia): Official in Buriatia, Aghin Buriatia and Ust-Ord Buriatia
            2. Mongolian Proper
              1. mongolian (halh): Not recognized. (Official in Mongolia)
          2. Oirat-Kalmyk
            1. Kalmyk-Oirat: Official in Kalmykia
    3. Tungus
      1. Northern
        1. Even
          1. Even: Recognized but not official
        2. Evenki
          1. Evenki: Official in Evenkia
        3. Negidal
          1. Negidal: Recognized but not official
      2. Southern
        1. Southeast
          1. Nanaj
            1. Nanai: Recognized but not official
            2. Orok: Recognized but not official
            3. Ulch: Recognized but not official
          2. Udihe
            1. Oroch: Recognized but not official
            2. Udihe: Recognized but not official
  7. Chukotko-Kamchatkan
    1. Northern
      1. Chukot
        1. Chukot: Official in Chukotka
      2. Koryak-Alyutor
        1. alutor: Not recognized.
        2. kerek: Not recognized.
        3. Koryak: Official in Koryakia
    2. Southern
      1. Itelmen: Recognized but not official
  8. Eskimo-Aleut
    1. Aleut
      1. Aleut: Recognized but not official
    2. Eskimo
      1. Yupik
        1. Siberian
          1. Yupik (central siberian): Considered as variant of yupik (naukan)
          2. Yupik (naukan): Recognized but not official
          3. Yupik (sirenik): Considered as variant of yupik (naukan)
  9. Yenisei Ostyak
    1. Ket: Recognized but not official
    2. yugh: Not recognized.
  10. Afro-Asiatic
    1. Semitic
      1. Central
        1. South
          1. Canaanite
            1. Hebrew (old): Liturgic use only. (Official in Israel)
        2. Aramaic
          1. Eastern
            1. Northeastern
              1. assyrian: Not recognized. Unofficial ethnic flag
  11. Language isolates
    1. korean: Not recognized. (Official in North Korea and South Korea)
    2. ainu: Not recognized. Unofficial ethnic flag
    3. gilyak: Not recognized.
    4. Nivkh: Recognized but not official