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Dictionary of Vexillology: E (E Cross - Emphasized)

Last modified: 2024-06-08 by rob raeside
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See ‘two-and-a-half armed cross’.

E cross E cross
Alternative Flag and Arms of Jabłonna, Poland (fotw)

1) The vexilloid carried as a main standard by ancient Roman legions - the aquila (see also ‘aquilifer’, 'signum 1)', ‘standard 4)’, 'vexillary and ‘vexilloid 2)’).
2) The name given to a French military colour whose staff displayed a finial in the form of a gilded eagle, used during the Napoleonic era and later Second Empire and based on the eagles of ancient Rome (see 1) above, ‘finial’ and also ‘colour 2)’).
3) In (particularly but not exclusively Continental European) heraldry the image of a bird of prey – see ‘displayed’ and ‘rising’ (also ‘armed’, ‘langued’ and ‘membered’).

aquila  eagle  aquila
Eagle of 105th Regiment of the Line 1815, France (Wikipedia); National Arms, Romania (fotw); Eagle Standard of a Roman Legion (

Please note with regard to 2) that during the Napoleonic era the eagle-topped staff alone usually acted as a regimental standard whilst on campaign, with the colour itself being retained at a regimental depot.

The original title of the flag as detailed below - see 'eagle standard 2)'.

eagle canton flag
Typical Eagle Canton Flag c1785 (

1) See 'eagle 1)' and ‘eagle 2)’).
2) A version of the US flag whose canton consisted of the great seal and largely (but not exclusively) in use as by the military from 1783–1912 – the eagle canton flag (see also ‘Betsy Ross flag’, ‘Franklin flag’, ‘great star flags’, ‘old glory’, ‘quincunx’, ‘star-spangled banner’, ‘stars and bars’ and ‘stars and stripes’).

eagle standard
Typical Eagle Standard c1824 (fotw)

A diagonal stripe that runs from the lower hoist corner to the upper fly corner, whose corners generally touch the corners of the flag but whose width is entirely contained within the width of the flag – a reduced bend sinister - see ‘bend’ and ‘Appendix IX’ (also ‘ascending diagonal’, ‘descending diagonal’, ‘north-east diagonal’, ‘north-south diagonal’, ‘south-east diagonal’, ‘south-north diagonal’, ‘west-east diagonal’, ‘west-north diagonal’, and ‘west-south diagonal’).

[east-west diagonal] [east-west diagonal]
The flag of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (fotw); Flag of Břidličná, Czechia (fotw)

See ‘banner 3)’.

[ecclesiastic banner]

See ‘Christian flag 1)’.

[Church of Scotland ]
Flag of the Church of Scotland (Graham Bartram)

1) In vexillology a term that may be used in place of fimbriation (or fimbriated), particularly where that fimbriation does not follow the heraldic rule of tincture, and/or serves no heraldic purpose – see ‘fimbriation’ and ‘rule of tincture’.
2) See ‘border’.
3) In strict heraldic practice the term that should be (but rarely if ever is) used in place of fimbriation when a charge so fimbriated touches the edge of a shield, banner of arms or flag.

Blato, Croatia Blato, Croatia Edging
Flag and Arms of Darda, Croatia (fotw); Flag of North Macedonia (fotw)

1) See ‘battle efficiency pennant’.
2) In Canadian usage now obsolete, a pennant awarded for efficiency in the training of air crew during WWII.
3) In US usage now obsolete, a pennant awarded by the US Government during WWII for excellence in the production of military equipment.
4) See ‘award flag’.

E pennant E pennant E pennant
Efficiency Pennant 1941 – 1945, Canada (Miles Li); E Pennants: US Navy until 1942; US Army/Navy 1942-1945 (fotw)

See ‘ankh’.

ankh cross
Flag used by the Music Group X Clan (fotw)

Translations of French term “fleur-de-lis épanouie”, which is an alternative name for the fleur-de-lis floroneé – see ‘fleur-de-lys floroneé’.

ankh cross ankh cross
Arms and flag of Gradište, Croatia (fotw)

The terms for a coronet (of varying design) now obsolete, that appeared above the arms of those German rulers who (until 1806) had the hereditary right to elect an emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, with a typical example being that above the Hanoverian inescutcheon on the royal standard of the UK from 1801 – 1816 (see also ‘coronet 2)’, ‘inescutcheon’ and ‘royal standard’.

electorial cap - Royal standard 1801 Ensign of Brandenburg
Royal Standard of the UK and Electoral Standard of Hanover 1801 – 1816 (fotw); Ensign of Brandenburg late 17th Century (fotw)

(adj) The alternative heraldic terms used when a division in the field of a banner of arms or shield, or its border, or the edge of an ordinary, is indented like a castle battlement - battled, battelly, bretessed, crenellé, crenelled, embattlement or kernelled (see also ‘armorial bearings’, ‘banner of arms’, ‘coat of arms 2)’, ‘ordinary’ and ‘shield’).

[Bauten Germany] [embattled ] [embattled ]
Flag of Bautzen, Germany (fotw); Flag of Oldenburg in Holstein, Germany (Wikipedia); Flag of Avô, Portugal (fotw)  

1) See ‘blazon’.
2) In strict heraldic usage, the creation of a pictorial record from a verbal or written description as referenced in 1) above.

[emblazoned example] [emblazoned example] [emblazoned example]
Arms of the Dukes of Rutland, UK (Wikipedia); Arms of the 7th to 9th Duke of Atholl (Wikipedia); Arms of the 16th Earl of Derby, England (Wikipedia)

1) Generically, a design, whether heraldic or otherwise, that is symbolic of a country, entity or person.
2) Specifically, a design of heraldic or other symbols which is not a set of armorial bearings/coat of arms or a badge as defined herein. In a commercial context a logo is often used as an emblem (see also ‘anti-heraldry’, ‘badge’, ‘coat of arms’ ‘emblem, military and governmental/departmental’, 'emblem, state and national', 'charge', ‘flag emblem’, and ‘logo’).

[Afghanistan] [Kyrgyzstan] [Bhutan]
Emblems of Afghanistan 1974 – 1978, Kyrgyzstan 1937 – 1994 and Bhutan (fotw)

Emblem, Military or Governmental/Departmental
A design of heraldic or other symbols which is not a set of armorial bearings/coat of arms or a badge as defined herein, but which is used to denote a particular branch or division of the military, or a specific department within a government structure – but see ‘badge 3)’ (also ‘camp flag’, ‘coat of arms’, ‘emblem 2)’, ‘emblem, state or national', 'charge', ‘logo’, ‘military crest’ and ‘ship’s crest’).

[government and military emblem] [Ukraine air force emblem] [Timor-Leste emblem]
Army Badge, RSA (fotw); Air Force Emblem, Ukraine (fotw); Emblem of the Immigration Service, Timor-Leste (Official Website)

Emblem, State, National, Provincial or Royal
A design of heraldic or other symbols which is not a set of armorial bearings/coat of arms or a badge as defined herein, but which is used to fulfil the function of a coat of arms in a national or provincial context – see notes below (also ‘badge’, ‘charge’, ‘coat of arms’, ‘emblem 2)’ 'emblem, military or governmental/departmental', ‘royal emblem’ and ‘seal’).

[state or national emblem]  [state or national emblem]  [state or national emblem] 
National Emblem, Mexico (fotw); Royal/National Emblem, Thailand (fotw); National Emblem of Italy (fotw)

a) National/provincial emblems often epitomise the individuality and/or spirit of the state, and can be placed on a flag to distinguish it from others, which may be similar – as, for example, those on the civil ensign of Italy and national flag of Mexico
b) The emblems of some countries such as those of Mexico or of Italy (as shown above) – whilst conforming to the definition as detailed herein – are officially described as “coats of arms”.

A heraldic term for when the edge of an ordinary or a charge, an animal or of the arm of a man, or the division line on a shield, banner of arms or a flag is bent or bowed – bowed, bent or ployé – but see ‘arched’ (also ‘banner of arms’, ‘charge 1)’, ‘ordinary’, ‘pointed’ and ‘vambraced’).

Embowed Embowed Embowed
Flag of Seftigen, Switzerland (fotw); Flag of Velika, Croatia (fotw); Old Flag of Paderborn, Germany (fotw)

An alternative heraldic term to interlaced - see ‘interlaced’.

 [embraced example] [embraced example]
Arms and Flag of Sveta Nedelja, Croatia (fotw)

(v) The use of needlework to create or enhance a design - employed especially on military colours and flags for indoor display (see also 'colour 2)', 'colours 2)’, ‘indoor flag’ and ‘raised detail’).

[embroidered example]
Embroidered Detail on the Flag of San Cristóbal de la Laguna, Tenerife, Spain (Klaus-Michael Schneider)

An alternative heraldic term to impale - see ‘impale’.

[empale example]
Flag of Saint-Florentin, France (fotw)

In heraldry see ‘garnished’.

[emphasized] [emphasized]
Arms and Flag of Martijanec, Croatia (fotw)

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